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Commonwealth of Virginia 
Timothy M. Kaine, Governor 

Bob Duncan 

As we close out the year 
and make plans for the 
coming winter, I join 
many of you who are taking a 
break to get outdoors and re- 
flect in the quiet of the mo- 
ment. We are, indeed, living in 
tumultuous times. The eco- 
nomic situation has many of us 
scratching our heads, thinking 
about how we spend and invest 
our hard-earned dollars. We 
appreciate the need for smart 
decisions; yet, some days the 
options appear elusive. 

To my way of thinking, the concept of smart 
investing is broad and reaches beyond financial 
measures. It should include those things that "pay 
us back" by improving the quahty of our days and 
the quitlity of the time we spend with family and 
friends. My mind naturally turns to thoughts of 
work and to the notion that our Department offers, 
among a suite of products, one that exemplifies a 
smart investment. 

Our lifetime hunting license has always been, 
and continues to be, a very wise investment. It rep- 
resents a financial commitment that gives back 
manv times over and well bevond the initial cash 

ouday Each use, or "withdraw- 
al," of the license reaps a posi- 
tive, lingering reward. 

I was reminded of its value 
when I met with Billy Stone- 
man, a bright and caring 12 
year old whose dad, Wihner, 
made just such an investment 
several years back. Billy went 
on his first hunt in 2003 at the 
age of seven. Three years later, 
he harvested his first antlered 
buck — a 10-pointer! — on 
opening day Since then, Billy 
has enjoyed many hours deer 
hunting with his father. He has also volunteered 
during a disabled hunt with the Virginia Water- 
fowlers' Association. Billy is learning a lot about 
fife, about giving back, and about his priorities 
through spending time in the woods. And the fife- 
time ficense his father gave him wiU continue to pay 
huge dividends. 

My hope is that you, too, wiU consider the re- 
wards of a fifetime hunting ficense. Whetiier you 
choose the option or not, please make tune for re- 
flection in your favorite outdoors venue during this 
season of generosity and hope. Enjoy a safe and 
happy hofiday 

Mission Statement 

To manage Virginia's wildlife and inland Bsh to maintain optimum papulations of all species to scire the needs of the Commonwealth; 
To provide opportiinil\ for ;ill to enjoy wildlife, inland fish, boating and related outdoor recreation and to work dihgently to safeguard the 
rights of the people to hunt, fish and han'est game a,s provided for in the Constitution of Virginia; To promote safety for persons and prop- 
erty in connection with boating, hunting and fishing; To provide educational outreach programs and materials that foster an awareness of 
and appreciation for Virginia's fish and wildlife resources, their habitats, and hunting, fishing, and boating opportunities. 

Dedicated to the Conservation ofVir^nia's Wildlt/e and Natural Resources 

VOLlMi; 69 NUMBER 12 




Subsidized this publication 

Secretary of Natural Resources 

L. Preston Bryant, Jr. 

Department of Game and 
Inland Fisheries 

Bob Duncan 
Executive Director 

Members of the Board 

Ward Burton, Halifax 
Sherry Smith Crumley, Buchanan 
William T. Greer, Jr., Norfolk 
James W. Hazel, Oakton 
C. T. Hill, Midlothian 
Randy J. Kozuch, Alexandria 
John W. Montgomery, Jr., Sandston 
Mary Louisa Pollard, Irvington 
Richard E. Railey, Courtland 
Thomas A. Stroup, Fairfax 
Charles S. Yates, Cleveland 

Magazine Staff 

Sally Mills, Editor 

Lee Walker, Ron Messina, Julia Dixon, 

Contributing Editors 

Emily Pels, Art Director 

Carol Kushlak, Production Manager 

Bruce Lemmert, Staff Contributor 

Color separations and printing by 
Progress Printing, Lynchburg, VA. 

Virginia Wildlife (ISSN 0042 6792) is published month- 
ly by the Virginia Department of Game and Inland 
Fisheries. Send all subscription orders and address 
changes to Virginia Wildlife, P. O. Box 7477, Red Oal^, 
Iowa 51591-0477. Address all other communications 
concerning this publication to Virginia Wildlife, P. O 
Box 11104, 4010 West Broad Street, Richmond, 
Virginia 23230-1104. Subscription rates are $12.95 for 
one year, $23.95 for two years; $4.00 per each back 
issue, subject to availability. Out-of-country rate i^ 
$24.95 for one year and must be paid in U.S. funds. 
No refunds for amounts less than $5.00. To sub- 
scribe, caU toll-free (800) 710-9369. Postmaster: 
Please send all address changes to Virginia Wildlife, 
PO. Box 7477, Red Oak, Iowa 51591-0477. Postage for 
periodicals paid at Richmond, Virginia and addition- 
al entry offices. 

Copyright 2008 by the Virginia Department of Game 
and Inland Fisheries. All rights reserved. 

The Department of Game and Inland Fisheries shall 
afford to all persons an equal access to Department 
programs and facilities without regard to race, color, 
religion, national origin, disability, sex, or age. If you 
believe that you have been discriminated against m 
any program, activity or facilitv, please write to: 
Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries, 
ATTN: Compliance Officer, (4010 West Broad Street.) 
PO. Box 11104, Richmond, Virginia 23230-1104. 

"This publication is intended for general informa- 
tional purposes only and every effort has been made 
to ensure its accuracy. The information contained 
herein does not serve as a legal representation of fish 
and wildlife laws or regulations. The Virginia 
Department of Game and Inland Fisheries does not 
assume responsibility for any change in dates, regu- 
lations, or information that may occur after publica- 


About the cover: 

Looking for a way 
to cure a bad case 
of cabin fever? 
Why not visit a 
stocked trout 
stream like Big 
Tumbling Creek 
in the Clinch 
WMA? During 
summer, this 
beautiful stream is 
managed as a spe- 
cial fee fishing area. After fishing season, 
it reverts to a put-and-take designated 
stream, where a trout license is required 
instead of a daily permit. For more infor- 
mation, visit wwwHuntFishVAcom, or 
call (434) 525-FlSH. And don't forget, a 
hunting or fishing license makes the per- 
fect holiday gift that gives all year long. 
©Dwight Dyke 


The Never-Ending Season 

by Curtis Badger 
Step back in time to the decoy carving style of 

]Jj||^ Accessing the Hunt 
by Ken Perrotte 
Making the hunting experience accessible to all. 

m^ Primum Non Nocere 

by Bruce Lemmert 
All Virginians will benefit by adhering to this 

^^ A Better Place Because of Blake 

by Tee Clarkson 
A tribute to young Blake Wayland. 

Community Partnerships 

by Gail Brown 
Partnering outside the schoolyard builds strong 
student leaders. 




For subscriptions, 

circulation problems and 

address changes call 


12 issues for $12.95 
24 issues for $23.95 
36 issues for $29.95 

Be Wild! Live Wild! Grow Wild! 

«- by Spike Knuth 
Virginia's Diving Ducks. 

Virginia Department of Game 
and Inland Fisheries Financial 
Summary, Fiscal Year 2008 

• A Duck Hunter's Journal (33) 

Photo Tips 

Presents, Presents, Presents for the Holidays 

2008 Index 

For Grayson Chesser 

carving decoys extends the 

hunting experience. 

story and photos 
by Curtis Badger 

For most waterfowl hunters, the 
season ends on a cold day in Jan- 
uary when all the hunting gear is 
packed away and forgotten until the 
following fall. But for Grayson 
Chesser, the closing of waterfowl sea- 
son doesn't mean the hunting experi- 
ence has come to an end; it just means 
it's changing. 

Grayson is a hunting guide and 
decoy maker who lives in Accomack 
County on the Eastern Shore, and 
when the last of his clients leave, 
when the blinds are shut down for 
the year, he switches roles from 

hunter to carver. Some of the decoys 
he makes will be hunted over, but 
most will be grabbed up by collectors 
who will display them in their homes 
and offices. To some, Grayson is a 
hunting guide who makes decoys, 
but to a growing number of people, 
Grayson is a folk artist who happens 
to hunt. They buy his decoys with no 
intention of using them in a duck 

It makes no difference to 
Grayson. Each decoy is carved and 
painted as if it will see action in a 
duck blind, but if someone wants to 
display one on the mantel, that's fine 

with him. At about $350 per decoy, it 
would be a bit pricey to have your 
own rig of handmade birds. Of 
course, you could book a trip with 
Grayson and hunt over his handmade 

"The rig is the important thing," 
Grayson says. "Anybody can carve a 
decoy. You want to create a communi- 
ty of birds, a group of individuals, just 
as they are in nature." Grayson makes 
sleeping decoys, feeding decoys, a 
few in an alert pose, some with their 
neck extended as if they were chasing 
another. He has a rig of teal for early 
season hunts, a rig of black ducks for 

Grayson Chesser believes in creating a community of birds, bke they appear in nature. 

As revealed in these side and top views, 
Chesser's carving style is one of minimal- 

shallow salt marsh ponds, sea duck 
decoys for open water, and a brant rig 
for shallow bays, all hand-carved 
from materials ranging from cedar to 
cork to styrofoam crab pot floats. 

Grayson continues, "The most 
satisfying aspect of hunting is to 
make your own rig of decoys, put 
them out on the water on opening 
day, and have ducks decoy to your 
rig. It's very rewarding. Decoys are 
not that difficult to make, and carving 

your own extends the hunting expe- 
rience. Most of us enjoy preparing for 
the hunt, and carving can be a big 
part of that." 

Like the earlier generation of 
decoy makers he learned from, 
Grayson carves his birds in a mini- 
malist fashion. There is little carved 
feather detail. Instead, Grayson uses 
painting techniques such as wet-on- 
wet blending, scratch painting, 
combing, and dry brushing to sug- 
gest feather detail. The idea is not to 
actually carve or paint feathers, but to 
create the illusion of feathers, much 
the way detail is rendered in impres- 
sionist paintings. 

"The older generation of carvers 
knew how to capture the essence of a 
bird with a minimum of detail," he 
says. "They spent a lot of time in the 
marshes. If they weren't hunting they 
were gathering oysters or clams, or 
fishing. They knew birds, they saw 
them every day and they didn't have 
to carve each feather to make the bird 
look real." 

Grayson and his wife. Dawn, 
operate Holden Creek Gun Club 
near the community of Jenkins 
Bridge, not far from the Saxis 
Wildlife Management Area in north- 
em Accomack. Their farmhouse has 
been in Grayson's family for genera- 
tions, and many years ago they con- 
verted the oM barn to a hunting 
lodge, put in a kitchen with all the 
amenities, furnished it with an- 
tiques, and began taking in visiting 
sportsmen. Most visitors consider 
Grayson an artist who works in 
wood, but Dawn is an artist who 


Chesser uses a variety of brushes and 
tools to create detail and embellish his 
carving style. 

works with local foods. Both are reg- 
ulars at the Smithsonian Folk Life 
Festival in Washington each July, 
where Grayson demonstrates carv- 
ing techniques and Dawn discusses 
regional cooking. 

Grayson didn't start out to be an 
artist. Growing up on the Eastern 
Shore, he loved being on the water, 
especially in fall when the waterfowl 
began to arrive. An early interest in 
duck hunting led to an interest in de- 
coys, and that led to an informal ap- 
prenticeship as a teen with well- 
known Chincoteague carver Miles 
Hancock, who made simple wooden 
decoys that captured a duck with just 
a minimum of detail. 

So Grayson began making his 
own decoys to hunt with, using the 
old time methods of a previous gen- 
eration of carvers, but adding his 
own style and technique. After high 
school he attended Old Dominion 
University, worked on the family 
farm, did a stint as a Virginia Game 
Warden (now called Conservation 
Police Officers), and all the while 
car\'ed rigs of wooden decoys that he 
would hunt with during the fall sea- 


^1 >>» 

Ma^ng (Decoys the Century OtcCWay 

/n 1989 Grayson Chesser and Curtis 
Badger collaborated on a book, tided 
Making Decoys the Century Old 
Way. Tlie book sold out after going througli 
two printings and was out of print for several 
years, becoming something of a collector's 
item. A new, revised and expanded edition was 
released last year by Tidewater Publishers, 
with tlie assistance of the Virginia Foundation 
for tlie Humiinities. Li tlie book, Grayson pro- 
vides step-by-stcp instructions on how to 
carve, paint, and use your own decoys. Books 
are available through your local bookseller or 
from Tidewater Publishers in Centreville, 
Maryland. Call 800-638-7641 to order. 

k I 


J^^ , . ^*^. 



when Grayson began guiding 
visiting hunters, many of them want- 
ed to purchase the decoys they hunt- 
ed over, so Grayson would spend the 
off-season making new decoys to re- 
place the ones purchased by guests. 
Within a few years Holden Creek 
Gun Club had become a growing 
family business. Dawn became close- 
ly involved and several local people 
were hired to help with guiding, 
cooking, and housekeeping duties. 
The farm fields were converted from 
grain production to conservation re- 
serve. Grayson was showing his 
work at wildlife art shows along the 
East Coast, and he found an eager 
market for his decoys, not just among 
hunters, but among people who ap- 
preciate handmade, functional items 

/4 rig of decoys and artist Grayson 
Chesser, who creates them (right). 

that reflect the skill and artistry of the 

Grayson recently marked his six- 
tieth birthday, and his hair and beard 
have a bit more salt than pepper these 
days. He was elected to the Acco- 
mack County Board of Supervisors 
last year, so some of his carving time 
is now being spent doing county 
business. He has cut back on wildlife 
art shows, but he has enough orders 
for bird carvings that his shop stays 

This decoy, with necl< extended, closely mimics real-life behavior 

He works in an old farm building 
adjacent to the hunting lodge. It is a 
two-room shop. The carving room 
has a band saw, a drill press, a big 
woodworking bench, and a floor lit- 
tered with aromatic cedar shavings. 
The painting room has a well-worn 
easy chair for the artist-in-residence, 
chairs for visitors, a television, and 
shelves filled with decoys in various 
states of finish. Photographs of hunts 
from the past fill the walls. 

Visiting Grayson and Dawn at 
Holden Creek Gun Club is a bit like 
stepping back in time, to an era when 
hunting lodges dotted the Virginia 
coast, when seasons were long and 
bag limits were generous. But those 
days are gone and will likely never be 
seen again. 

"I've never considered duck 
hunting simply a matter of killing 
birds," says Grayson. "It always has 
been a more complicated process than 
that. It begins with knowing the birds, 
where they live and what their habits 
are. And the decoys are a large part of 
it. There is a great deal of satisfaction 
in making a lifelike decoy, in creating 
a decoy rig. The excitement of duck 
hunting to me comes from watching 
the sun rise over my own rig, then see- 
ing birds on the horizon and watching 
them lock in on the decoys. It's one of 
the most rewarding hunting experi- 
ences you can have." D 

Curtis Badger, whose most recent book is A Nat- 
ural History of Quiet Waters (IIVA Press), has 
written widely about natural history and 'wildlife 
art. He lives on Virginia's Eastern Shore. 


The Hogue Tract is a 

place where permanently 

disabled hunters 

can enjoy 

the thrill of the hunt. 


night ram was falling in the Oc- 
tober pre-dawn of Fauquier 
— County. Richard Mast held a 
rain jacket over the head of his father- 
in-law, Tom Reese, as he searched 
through a document holder. 

Reese had just maneuvered from 
the cockpit of his specially configured 
van onto a motorized scooter. When 
the van's side door slid open, a hy- 
draulic lift carefully lowered m^m and 
machine to tlie ground. 

Beyond grabbing his coffee and 
crossbow, one important piece of 
business remained before Reese could 
begin rolling tlirough the dark toward 
a hoped-for encounter with a white- 
tailed deer. He needed to finti the ve- 
hicle permit that would tell law en- 
forcement personnel that this van 
with handicap-designated license 
plates at the C.F. Phelps Wildlife Man- 
agement Area's Hogue Tract was, in- 
deed, supposed to be there that day. 

Mission accomplished, the per- 
mit was placed on the dashboard and 
Reese and Mast made their way along 
a winding trail toward a ground blind 
at the back of the 11 0-acre tract of land. 

The Hogue Tract is one of only a 
few in Virginia reserved exclusively 
for permanently disabled hunters, 
and 50-year-old Warrenton resident 
Reese has been hunting there since it 
opened in 1997. 

Reese, who injured his legs in a 
motorcycle accident in 1984, is classi- 
fied as a T4 paraplegic, which means, 
he explained, a spinal injury from 
about liis shirt pocket down. 

"Can't feel it; can't move it," he 


7 '«5*^. i 

©Ken Perrotte 

Prior to his injury, Reese had 
been a dispatcher with the Fauquier 
County Sheriff's Department, as well 
as a physician's assistant with the jail. 

He spoke with fondness of both 
the land and the opportunity, count- 
ing himself as one of the people who 
were in on the ground floor of the 
property's transformation from pri- 
vate farm and forest land to public re- 
source. Reese worked with Virginia 
Department of Game and Inland 
Fisheries (DGIF) biologists and tech- 
nicians to help design a system of 
trails and ground blinds tailored to 
service disabled hunters. 

"When it was proposed, Jerry 
Sims called to ask if I'd be willing to 
come down and help with the de- 
sign," Reese explained. Working 
alongside a team of DGIF staff — in- 
cluding regional manager Sims — 
Reese offered his thoughts on the 
stands, the trails, and what would 
work for him. 

"We tried to imagine other types 
of disabilities other than our own 
personal one to try to make it work 
for different individuals," Reese con- 

"I had friends who knew this 
area, and they knew it had the habitat 
for game. It was just a matter of mak- 

The Hogue Tract is unique in that it 
allows both the hunter (right) and his 
assistant to hunt. 


ing a way to get people into it," he 

Hunting has logistical require- 
ments. Disabled hunters face unique 
challenges in just getting to and from 
hunting locations, not to mention 
dealing with any game once it's 
taken. Assistance is often critical. 

Reese said the Hogue Tract was 
intended to offer hunting access to 
people who were disabled to the ex- 
tent they were unable to walk and 
needed a helper. 

"But, one of the things we asked 
for in the design was the opportunity 
to allow the helper to also hunt. There 
are some places that won't do that. 

and there are some disabled hunters 
who have to bribe folks to come with 
them. The ability for the assist 
hunters to hunt as well is just an extra 
'feather in the cap' for this place," he 

Fortunately for Reese, his son-in- 
law regularly offers to accompany 
him to the field, whether or not he is 
allowed to tote a firearm or bow. 

Reese said he thinks DGIF is 
doing a "first-rate" job managing the 
property and keeping hunting stands 
and paths in shape. 

"They clear small trees, limbs, 
and brush to clear shooting lanes. 
They stack up dead brush against the 


blinds to increase the natural cover. 
Between the DGIF staff and area boy 
scouts and others who help maintain 
the property, they do a great job," 
said Reese. 

He praised the Department's 
staff for clearing leaves from the 
paths a couple of times each autumn. 
While a seemingly small service, it is 
one that can be invaluable to hunters 
in manual wheelchairs. 

"If you can't see the sides of the 
path, it's easy to get off the path and 
get into difficulty — especially in the 
dark when many hunters are ap- 
proaching or leaving a stand," noted 

"1 know they'd love to pave this 
trail, but you know what firnds are 

like. Until then, this does work," he 

The work hasn't gone without 
notice from local governing officials. 

The Fauquier County Disability 
Services Board's Disability Awards 
Committee traveled to DGIF head- 
quarters in Richmond last year to 
present a plaque commemorating the 
Hogue Tract's 10th anniversary. That 
recognition was followed up with 
one by the Fauquier County Board of 
Supervisors, which issued a procla- 
mation commending efforts to assist 
the disabled residents of the county. 

Reese said local law enforcement 
personnel are protective of the dis- 
abled hunters and work to ensure 
regulations prohibiting non-hunter 

access during the seasons are strictly 
followed. The tract does afford access 
to the Rappahannock River. Sigiis ar- 
ticulating the type of access allowed 
are prominent. 

"One of the more common prob- 
lems, they [law enforcement officials] 
tell me, is youths going back in there to 
party. Other conflicts come when jog- 
gers with dogs just don't read the sign 
out front explaining tliat the area is off- 
limits during specific days during 
hunting season," Reese said, adding 
that he's never had any confrontations 
when speaking to people who should 
not be on the property. 

While Reese has now taken a few 
deer from the tract, it took him nearly 
seven years to score tlie first. 

"I wasn't able to get down here as 
much as 1 wanted to. But after I was 
able to get hold of an electric scooter, 
that changed my world and 1 could get 
down here a lot. The blinds are much 
easier to get to when you don't have to 
be pushed to tliem," he said. D 

Ken Perwtte is a King George County resident 
and tlw outdoors colununst for the Fredericksburg 
Free Lance-Star }iewspaper 

Editor's note: For more information about the 
Hogue Tract, including how to schedule it 
for hunting, please contact Jerry Sims, 
Wildlife Regional Manager, Fredericksburg 
Regional Office, 540-899-4169. 

Both the ground blinds and the paths 
were designed to accommodate the needs 
of disabled hunters. 

©Ken Perrotte 

/ f^.' 

These Agencies and 

Organizations Have 

Worked Cooperatively 

to Develop the Hogue 

Tract Handicapped 

Accessible Trail 







In nature s infinite 

hook of secrecy 
A little I can read. 

by Bruce A. Lemmert 

Im not sure who coined the 
term "dirt cheap," but this I do 
know. Whoever came up with 
that phrase surely hasn't purchased 
property in Virginia recently. Land is 
widely recognized as a cherished 
commodity. Our society measures so 
much in mere dollars and cents. So be 
it. But land is precious, in so many 
more ways than money can define. 

A thinking person will accept the 
fact that the land is every bit as com- 
plex as the human body. And those 
familiar with the Hippocratic oath 
may recognize the title of this essay. 
"First, do no harm" is considered by 
many the cornerstone of the oath a 
physician takes upon entering the 
medical profession. This principle 
can be equally effective when ap- 
plied to the land. 

At one time, the typical Virginia 
landowner both lived on and worked 
the land. In order to be a good stew- 
ard, Thomas Jefferson himself experi- 

First, do no harm. The land ethic. 


All wildlife benefit from sound land management. 

mented with such soil-saving tech- 
niques as crop rotation and contour 
plowing. And while Jefferson's idea 
of an agrarian society has been large- 
ly displaced, his concern for the land 
will never be legitimately trumped. 

Virginia landowners now come 
from every walk of life and their land 
objectives can vary widely. But they 
share important common ground. 
This, my experience tells me. One: 
Most landowners want to be good 
neighbors. Two: There is no greater 

legacy than land and most people, 
when they leave this good earth, 
want their legacy to be better than 
when they first arrived. The desires 
to be a good neighbor and to leave 
this world a better place are basic 
human values that I believe are 
imbedded in our souls. 

Maybe you rent a two-room 
apartment in downtown Richmond 
and you are thinking, / don't rcalli/ 
have a dog in this hunt. Well, my an- 
swer to that is, "You most certainly 

do." As a citizen, each of us has a di- 
rect stake in millions of acres of public 
land. It is not just our right to insist on 
proper management of that land; it is 
our obligation. The land legacy we 
leave will resonate through time. Our 
land is a treasure that future genera- 
tions will increasingly value. 

Knowing that I am a lawman, 
you will probably be appalleci that I 
recommend you defy the law. No, I 
couldn't recommend that you ignore 
the statutes that keep our society 
humming along on a somewhat even 
keel. As a landowner, the law I want 
you to resist is another kiiid of law: 
the law of gravity. 

isut Gravity Happens 

The Appalachian Mountains 
were formed during the collision of 
continental plates about 270 million 
years ago. In its infancy, the Ap- 
palachians rivaled the present-day 
Rocky Mountains in height. The 
Rockies support several peaks over 
14,000 feet. Contrast that with Mount 
Mitchell in nearby North Carolina, 
which, as the highest point in the Ap- 
palachian chain, reaches 6,684 feet. 
Our own Mount Rogers in the Vir- 
ginia Highlands measures in at a 
mere 5,729 feet. 


what happened? Gravity hap- 

And something else called water 
happened. Water is the elixir of life. 
We simply cannot do without it. We 
drink it, we bathe in it, we recreate in 
it. But, when water combines with 
gravity in the wrong place, at the 
wrong time, in quantities we would 
term "too much," erosion results. 

To my way of thinking, if 
landowners can manage only one 
thing on their land to be good neigh- 
bors, and for posterity sake, it would 
be this simple act: prevent erosion. 

Jerry Claiborne, one of my for- 
mer football coaches, had the 
acronym "KISS" framed on his office 
wall: "Keep It Simple, Stupid." Ap- 
plied in this case, the objective is to 
prevent erosion by resisting the law 
of gravity. Since water facilitated by 
gravity accelerates erosion in a big, 
big way, some might suggest that we 
simply eliminate water from the for- 
mula. But we have already acknowl- 
edged that water, in the right 
amount, in the right place, is our 
lifeblood. Elimination of water is not 
an option. What about gravity? No, 
although we have a good time trying 
to defy gravity, we know, in the end, 
it can't really be done. 

What's left? The land. 

It*s Not Just Dirt 

Nature, left to its own devices, 
does an exceptional job of stabilizing 
the land. It is the diversity of life that 
holds this good earth together. All 
life vies for its place in the sun. Every 
niche in nature is exploited; even root 
zones are exploited by different flora. 
Plant life controls animal Ufe. Plant- 
eating fauna make a living from the 
interest capital provided by plants. 
When plant eaters become too many, 
they may eat into principal, and this 
exposes the land to the ravages of 

Meat eaters are provided to pre- 
vent this from happening. It may 
sound cruel to say that the meat 
eaters are devouring the vegetarians 
for their own good, but that is essen- 
tially what is occurring. Unlimited 
quantities of life are simply not per- 
mitted at any given point in time. 
This rule applies to all living things, 
in toto. In the big picture, then, these 
relationships promote diversity, and 
diversity protects and even enhances 
the soil. 

The diversity offered by nature 
leaves the land a healthy place for 
each succeeding generation of life. 
This is called stability. And this is just 
what is going on above ground. 

Keeping cows out of creeks iv;/7 help pro- 
tect water health all the way downstream. 

What about below? University of 
Illinois biologist James Nardi says 
that a square meter of healthy soil 
supports "10 trillion bacteria, 10 bil- 
lion protozoa, 5 million nematodes, 
100,000 mites, 50,000 springtails, 
10,000 rotifers and tardigrades, 5,000 
insects and arachnids, 3,000 worms, 
and 100 snails and slugs." Those fig- 
ures seem a bit high to me, but you 
get the picture. This is not just dirt. 


Obligation and Reward 

Land ownership entails both ob- 
ligation and reward. The obligation 
of proper land management reaps a 
practical bonus — water that is fil- 
tered and purified. Water, slowed to 
gravity's pull, seeps into the soil and 
then to the great aquifers. Down- 
stream flooding is mitigated. Water 
runoff remains pure. Too much 
runoff too fast, however, carries silt, 
which degrades your neighbor's 
stream and robs you and your legatee 
of a most precious resource: soil. Ap- 
propriate land management, then, 
satisfies the "good neighbor policy" 
and legacy. Those looking for win- 
win situations find it in the land ethic. 

Rewards of land ownership can 
come through the mere observance of 
such things as woodlots, wildflow- 
ers, and wildlife. In my mind's eye, 
the notion of "the land" is all-encom- 
passing. It includes the weather, the 
season, even the time of day. These 
influences, which many consider 
outside the realm of property owner- 
ship, are still very much part and par- 
cel of the land. The ever-present 
stream of such intangibles affects the 
character and patina of the landscape 
and changes our perceptions of it 
from season to season, from day to 

day, and even from minute to minute. 
The true value of this inclusive view- 
point is, well, priceless. If one has the 
time and can open their senses to 
these gifts that the land provides, 
one's mortality will be enhanced. 

It is, indeed, a complex world. 
The young lady who lives in the two- 
room flat in clowntown Richmond 
may have very limited chances to di- 
rectly enjoy wide open spaces. That's 
life. It makes her opportunities on the 
land all the more valuable. In her 
urban setting one tinds enhanced ap- 
preciation of that flower, of that un- 
mistakable call of the house wren in 
spring, of that cumulonimbus clovid 
in summer. It is not just immediate 
satisfaction, but appreciation deep- 
ened by a memory of association. Her 
view is expanded by her very experi- 


My family physician is a good- 
natured guy. He said that he not only 
didn't mind sharing the Hippocratic 
oath with landowners, he thought 
that it was a good idea to do so. After 
all, we come from the land and we 
will return to the land. Personal 
health and land health are, in fact, in- 
extricably entwined. 

Remember, you are a steward. 

Bank erosion is caused by many things, 
including cows that are not fenced out. 

Be a good neighbor. Keep all the 
pieces. Defy gravity. Leave a legacy. 

"Prim urn nan nocere. " First, do no 
harm. D 

Bruce Letnmert is a Conservation Police 
Officer with the Virghha Departnieut of 
Game and Inland Fisheries and a member 
of the Virginia Chapter of The Wildlife So- 
ciety and the Virginia Outdoor Writers 


Blake Wayland 

photos courtesy of the Wayland Family 


rhroughout his writings, 
Thoreau preached the im- 
portance of the individual, 
stating, "For it matters not how small 
the beginning may seem to be: What 
is once well done is done forever." He 
recognized that it did not always take 
grand accomplishments or elaborate 
gestures to make the world a better 
place, that compassion and caring 
and the coming together of people is 
often enough to effect change. 

On August 23, 2004, doctors di- 
agnosed Blake Wayland with Acute 
Myeloid Leukemia. He was ten years 
old at the time. His situation was ter- 
minal and as a last wish, Blake, a big 
outdoorsman, wanted to go hunting 
in Montcina. The Wayland family ap- 
proached the Make A Wish Founda- 
tion, who was unable to honor his re- 
quest. Fortunately, Captain Bobby 
Mawyer at the Virginia Department 
of Game and Inland Fisheries found 
out about Blake's situation and took 
it upon himself to make Blake's wish 
a reality. While hunting in Montana 
would not work for various reasons, 
he contacted some friends at a large, 
private farm in eastern Henrico 
County and was able to gain access to 
take Blake hunting over the course of 
the 2004-2005 season. 

"Blake didn't care too much 
about shooting something," said 
Captain Mawyer, "He just liked 
being outdoors." 

The two struck up quite a friend- 
ship over the five or six times they 
went hunting together. While they 
spent hours in a ground blind, often 



they just shot target practice with a 
.22 rifle or Capt. Mawyer let Blake 
drive the four-wheeler around the 
farm. "We did whatever he wanted to 
do," Mawyer said. When Blake lost 
his battle with Leukemia in March 
2005, shortly after the hunting sea- 
son, Mawyer was a pall bearer at his 

Brian Way land, Blake's father, 
joined Mawyer and Blake on several 

Boh Wayland 

To learn more about the Complementary 

Work Force, visit our Web site at: 

hunts. "We never did get anything 
when I was with them," Blake's fa- 
ther recalled, "but he would say, we'll 
get'em next time dad, and in his 
mind there was going to be a next 
time, which is all that matters. He 
loved to fish and hunt and it meant 
the world to me to see him so happy 
at the end." 

Several years later, Blake's 
grandfather, the late Bob Wayland, 
saw a notice in the newspaper for the 
DGIF's volunteer work force. He im- 
mediately called to see what he could 
do to help. Over the past year, he 
spent time volunteering with the 
"Complementary Work Force" in the 
Verona office. 

"If I could help pay back some of 
what Bobby did for Blake, I would. 
That's why I got involved with the 
program, to repay their kindness," 
Bob told me. 

While Blake's story is a tragic 
one, his life was not. Blake's courage 
and kindness affected all those who 
came in contact with him. Through 
generosity, Blake spent his last 
months doing what he loved: enjoy- 
ing the outdoors. More than a few 
people took time from their lives with 
no expectation of gain for them- 
selves, only to reaffirm that the great- 
est rewards have no monetary value. 
The world became a better place for 
it. The world became a better place 
because of Blake Wayland. H 

Tee Clarkson is an English teacher at Deep 
Run HigJi School in Henrico County. Tee is 
also a nieniber of the Virginia Outdoor 
Writers Association. 

Blake and his dad, Brian. 




y J \ yNaturally 

When schools and 


work together, 

everyone is a winner 

story and photos by Gail Brown 

If you're lucky, you might get a 
"what's-that-thing" this year. You 
know, one of those loosely 
wrapped, lumpy, clay offerings that, 
like valued friendships, become holi- 
day keepers. Long after little fingers 
toss glitzy wrappings aside, both re- 
main to warm our homes and boost 
our spirits. Friendships are also im- 
portant at Chesterfield County's Bet- 
tie Woodson Weaver Elementary 
School (Bettie Weaver). "Friends 
share...! share my crayons," says 
Claire, a first grader at Bettie Weaver. 
"I share with everyone at my table." 

Like Claire, the teachers and staff 
at Virginia Naturally (VAN) schools 
understand the value of friendship. 
One of the hallmarks of VAN schools 
is their ability to establish long-last- 
ing partnerships with local environ- 
mental agencies — agencies whose 
roles include "sharing" and helping 
schools build environmental science 
programs. The sharing doesn't end 
with the holiday season, either, al- 
though asking for a pond does seem a 
bit like whispering in Santa's ear. 

Yet it's a pond that tops the wish 
list at Hanover County's Stonewall 
Jackson Middle School and adjacent 
Lee-Davis High School. Both schools 
are landlocked, with no access to a 
natural waterway for scientific inves- 
tigation and environmental studies. 
There is, however, a small plot of land 
between the schools that both science 
departments agree would be the per- 
fect location to build a pond. But even 
researching the feasibility of this proj- 
ect would not be possible without the 
support and expertise of their long- 
time friend and parhner, the Hanover- 
Caroline Soil and Water Conserva- 
tion District. Teacher Lynn Shope 

Community Pari 

Top: Mrs. Bettie Weaver encouiages children to connect ivith nature. Above: A 9th- 
year VAN school, Crestwood partnered with Friends of Chesterfield's Riverfront. 



states, "There's so much that goes 
into building a pond. ..we could 
never attempt this alone. We have ac- 
complished so much over the years 
with the help of our soil and water 
district, and we have a much better 
chance to see this wish become a real- 
ity because of this partnership." 

Partnerships help in other ways, 
too. According to Clover Hill High 
School's science teacher, Michelle 
Huber, their partnership with 
Chesterfield County's Department of 
Environmental Engineering benefits 
both her students and her program. 
"My students enjoyed working with 
an expert during field studies... and 
working with data from the county." 
She believes this partnership will 
help her students "develop a greater 
understanding of their responsibili- 
ties as future leaders and help them 
make sound decisions and ask the 
right questions about environmental 

Forming partnerships and learn- 
ing about environmental issues does- 
n't need to wait until high school. At 
Bettie Weaver, stvidents continue to 
benefit from an outdoor classroom 
they helped plant with the county's 
local environmental organization. 
Friends of Chesterfield's Riverfront 
(Friends). PTA mom Jenny Childress 
sees numerous opportunities for 
leadership skills to bloom as the stu- 
dents work on new stewardship 
goals. Friends partnered witli Crest- 
wood Elementary, too, providing 
teacher training and helping both 
schools with their water monitoring 

As December fades and the new 
vear unfolds, VAN schools will form 
new partnerships, but wisely keep 
old friends close and in sight — like 
that cheerful red and green "shape" 
so prominently displayed in the fami- 
ly room, the one that older siblings 
point to and grouse, "What is that 
thing, anyway?" D 

Gail Broioii is a retired principal for Chester- 
field County Public Schools. She is a lifelong 
learner and educator, and her teaching and ad- 
nihiistrative experiences in grades K-12 have 
taught her that project-based cnvironmoital 
programs teach scietice staiuiards, proinote 
core values, and provide exciting educational 
experiences for the entire conuinniity. 

Top: Strong partnerships with their 
PTAs resulted in signage for Bettie 
Weaver's butterfly garden and a green- 
house with gardens for Crestwood 
students. Above: Even the principal 
gardens at Crestwood! 

Bettie Weaver's PTA supports their recycling efforts. Fifth graders weigh and 
record the amount of recycled paper. 


VitQi/iia. v5 2 


story and illustrations 
by Spike Knuth 

Zooking at the two types of 
ducks in Virginia, some basic 
physical differences govern 
where and the way they live. Diving 
ducks normally inhabit deeper, larg- 
er bodies of fresh or brackish water 
and are capable of diving for their 
food of bottom vegetation, mussels, 
or crustaceans. The legs and feet of 
diving ducks are located toward the 
rear of their bodies. On dry ground 
they stand at about a 45-degree angle, 
rather than parallel, and they have 
some difficulty walking on land. 

Divers fly faster and even appear 
swifter due to shorter, chunkier bod- 
ies, narrower and smaller wings, and 
quicker wing beats. To become air- 
borne they must run over the water 
to pick up speed and have larger feet 
to help them do so. They generally fly 
in larger flocks and habitually flock 
in large groups or rafts in open water. 
Diving ducks are less colorful 
and show a lot of blacks, grays, 
browns, and whites. Most colors are 
on the drake's heads, and they do not 
have the colorful speculums of pud- 
dle ducks. Most divers nest over or 
very close to water. Diving ducks 


breed mainly in the north and in the 
prairie pothole region of Canada and 
the United States. Many divers win- 
ter in Virginia or pass through the 
Commonwealth on their way further 

{Aythya valisineria) 

This big duck was known as the 
"king of ducks" by the old market 
hunters, and its flesh was highly 
prized as a food source in those days. 

"Cans," as they are nicknamed, 
have a distinctive, broad-based bill 
which slopes up into an elongated, 
streamlined head. The head and neck 
of the drake is a deep reddish-brown 
with black around the face and over 
its crown. Its chest and rear end are 
black; its belly and back, white and 
finely vermiculated with gray — 
resembling canvas! The female is 
basically brownish with a darker 
breast, gray back and belly, and a 
whitish face and chin. 

Cans are at home on big marsh- 
es or rafting up on large lakes, bays, 
or rivers. Their favorite food is wild 
celery (VnUis)icria mncricana) which 
is where the scientific name of the 
canvasback is derived. Canvasback 
also feed on varied aquatic plants 

and will turn to small clams an 
other shellfish when plant foods a 
not available. 

Many canvasbacks migral 
southeasterly from Central Canac 
to winter in the Chesapeake Bay are 
Flocks in migration fly in long wa\ 
lines, sometimes containing hui 
dreds of birds. 

(Aythi/n americana) 

The redhead is large and long-bo 
ied, with a noticeably puffy hea 
The male is black-breasted with 
gray back, lighter gray belly, and 
reddish-brown head. The female . 


Vi/ia 2>UC!J(S 

luUi Lac iU« vj 

1 Wi« «i 

basically brownish with a pale brown 
head and white chin. Both sexes 
show gray speculums on their wings, 
and their bills are tipped with black 
and a narrow ring of white. 

Most redheads breed in the 
prairie marshes and parklands of 
Canada and the marshes of the north 
central states. Some females may not 
build a nest, but dump their eggs in 
other ducks' nests. Redheads migrate 
south beginning about mid-October, 
with many birds going southeasterly 
to the Chesapeake Bay. The redhead's 
diet is normally aquatic vegetation. 
Look for them on brackish waters, 
large marshes, or freshwater lakes. 

(Aythi/a marila) 


There are two types of scaup that 
winter in Virginia: the greater and the 
lesser. The greater is normally larger, 
but interbreeding results in size vari- 
ations. The lesser has a dark head that 
shines purplish in the sun but is 
sometimes mixed with green, while 
the greater's head shines green. Both 
appear black in the absence of reflect- 
ing sunlight. They have white bellies, 
black breasts and rear ends, and gray- 
ish flanks and backs. The greater 
scaups show whiter on back and 

The females of both species are 
basically dark brown with white face 
patches. The bills of both are bluish or 
bluish-gray. They have white specu- 
lums. The white extends into the pri- 
maries of the greater scaup, appear- 
ing as a stripe in flight. On the lesser 



scaup, only the secondaries are 
white, which is the best best way to 
tell the two species apart. The greater 
scaup also has a wider bill than the 
lesser scaup. Other names include 
bluebill, broadbill, and blackhead. 

Scaups are restless ducks that fly 
low over the water when moving 

<3i~eaie.f ScLOl/^ 

from one spot to another. They gatlier 
in large rafts on their wintering 
grounds. On migration they fly high 
in swarm-like flocks. Their food is 
primarily a variety of aquatic plants, 
such as widgeon grass or wild celery, 
as well as small mollusks and crus- 


(Aythya collaris) 

The ring-necked duck is a diving 
duck with an affinity for swampy- 
edged marsh sloughs or ponds and 
cypress-studded, shallow lakes 
(rather than the broad, open water 
areas diving ducks usually inlnabit). 
Its name comes from a ring or collar 
of light brown around the male's 
neck — which is actually not very visi- 
ble. More visible is a white ring 
around the tip of its bill, which results 
in another common name, "ring 
bill." Other localized names are 
"blackjack" and "marsh bluebill." 


The drake has a dark, puffy-look- 
ing head, with a sort of top-knot and 
a purplish cast. Its sides are gray and 
it has a vertical white hash mark just 
behind its black chest. The hen is ba- 
sically brown with a pale brown face, 
whitish chin, and distinctive white 
eye ring. 

These ducks breed mainly in the 
parklands of Canada — an area just 
north of the prairie marshes, where 
small trees and forest land begin. 
You'll often see them in close associa- 
tion with hooded mergansers, usual- 
ly in small groups. 

(Bucephala clangula) 

One of the hardiest of our wintering 
waterfowl is the American golden- 
eye, forced south only when the wa- 
ters freeze up north. It is a medium- 
sized, stocky duck. The male has a 
puffy, velvety blackish-green head 
with a large white spot between the 
eye and bill. In flight it flashes a lot of 
black and white with its wings and its 
immaculate white underbody. Its feet 
are a bright yellow-orange. The hen is 
a more brownish-gray and gray 
above, with white undersides and a 
gray chest band, which gives the ap- 
pearance of a white neck collar. Its 
head is puffy as well, but rich brown 
in color. 

One of its common names is 
"whistle wings," because its wings 
make a whistling sound. Chesapeake 
Bay hunters locally call them "jin- 
glers." They feed on seed clams, 
small mussels, freshwater shellfish, 

^/TO -nedJ^&d J)U(lJ( 

do/^i^yjor) (^o/deJT&Jt. 

and some aquatic plants. Goldeneyes 
are seldom seen in large flocks; usual- 
ly in pairs, or trios. 

Look for them on mostly fresh 
and brackish waters of tidal rivers, 
lakes, and large reservoirs. Come 
February they begin moving north to 
their breeding areas in Canada, 
where they nest in tree cavities 
around lakes and rivers. 

(Bucephala albcola) 

The bufflehead was originally 
known as the "buffalo head," be- 
cause of its unusually shaped, puffy 
head. Time and slurred words result- 
ed in a shortened version, "buffle- 

It is a short, stubby duck with a 
big head and small bill. The male has 
a dark head set on a mostly white 
body. The head is glossed with pur- 

ple, violet, and green, with a triangu- 
lar-shaped white patch behind its eye 
at the back of its head. Its undersides 
are white with gray-edged flanks and 
a dark greenish-black back. It has 
pink feet. The hen is also dark-backed 
and white-bellied, with gray sides 
and breast and a white cheek patch 
on a brownish-gray head. At a dis- 
tance on the water, the bufflehead can 
be confused with the hooded mer- 
ganser — which also has a white 
patch visible when it fans its crest. 

It nests primarily in parklands or 
bush country north and west of tlie 

prairies of Canada in tree cavities, 
much like the wood duck, often in 
old woodpecker holes. They are fast 
fliers, traveling low over the water in 
small flocks made up of mosfly fe- 
males and juveniles, along with a 
couple of older drakes. 

The bufflehead gets very fat in 
late fall, which earned it the tag, "but- 
terball." It is not ranked high as a 
table bird because of its shellfish diet. 


but those birds that feed heavily on 
vegetation can be quite delectable. 
Buffleheads can be found on ponds, 
lakes, reservoirs large and small, and 
on most tidal rivers during the win- 

(Oxifura jmnaicensis) 

One of the most unique and unusual 
of our waterfowl is the rviddy duck. 
Its names include "stiff-tailed duck," 
"bumblebee coot," "dummy duck," 
"sleepy head," and "leatherback." 
They were valued by market hunters 
as acceptable substitutes to canvas- 
backs in terms of food value, because 
ruddys were mainly vegetarians, 
which imparted to them a very good 

Add to that the fact that they 
were fairly easy to bag due to their 
tendency to swim or drift sleepily 
into a hunter's decoy set with- 
in easy shotgun range. A 
market hunter could fit 
many more of these 
chunky ducks into his 
boat, and they would 
fetch a buck a piece in the 
market, resulting in the 
nickname, "dollar duck." 

The male ruddy has 
two distinct plumages. Its 
spring breeding plumage 
sports a body of chestnut 
red, with a black mask and 
crown, white cheeks, and a sky-blue 
bill. In fall it turns to a dark grayish- 
brc^wn on its back and lightly barred 
flanks with a rusty wash. It retains its 
whitish cheeks. The female is similar 
year round but has a mark on its 

cheek that resembles an "S" lying on 
its side. 

The female lays eggs larger than 
ducks three times her size, yet weighs 
only 74 to VA pounds! The ruddy 
drake, unlike the drakes of other 
species, remains to help care for and 
protect the young. Look for ruddys 
from late October through early 

February in coastal marshes, 
some inland lakes, and tidal 


Spike Kmith is an avid naturalist ami 
wildlife artist. For oi>cr 30 years his art- 
work and writing have appeared in Vir- 
ginia Wikilife. Spike is also a ineniber of 
the Virginia Outdoor Writers Assoeiation. 

Be Wild! Live Wild! Grow Wild! is a 
regular feature that highlights Vir- 
ginia's Wildlife Action Plan, which 
is designed to unite natural re- 
sources agendes, sportsmen and 
women, conservationists and dti- 
zens in a common vision for the 
conservation of the Common- 
wealth's wildlife and habitats in 
which they live. To learn more or to 
become involved with this new 
program visit: 


Rudely j>cfcJ!: 



Financial Summary 
Fiscal Year 2008 

(July 1,2007 -June 30, 2008) 


Mission Statement 

To manage Virginia's wildlife and inland fnsh 
to maintain optimum populations of all 
species to serve the needs of the Common- 
wealth; To provide opportunity for all to 
enjoy wildlife, inland fish, boating and relat- 
ed outdoor recreation and to work diligently 
to safeguard the rights of the people to hunt, 
fish and harvest game as provided for in the 
Constitution of Virginia; To promote safety 
for persons and property in connection with 
boating, hunting and fishing; To provide edu- 
cational outreach programs and materials 
that foster an awareness of and appreciation 
for Virginia's fish and wildlife resources, their 
habitats, and hunting, fishing, and boating 





License Sales 


Total Net Cash Income: $65,903,796 

Distribution of Agency Revenue 
and Transfers for Operation by Source for FY 2008 

License Sales: $22,164,002 

Key to our mission of providing 
wildlife-related recreation and man- 
agement, the Department sells li- 
censes required for participation in 
hunting, fishing, and trapping activ- 
ities across Virginia. The Depart- 
ment currently sells approximately 
60 types of annual licenses in addi- 
tion to lifetime hunting and fishing 
licenses. Cash receipts from the sale 
of lifetime licenses are deposited 
into a separate lifetime license ac- 
count that is not used to fund opera- 

Boat Registration and Titling: 

The Department is responsible for 

safe boating education, for registra- 
tion and titling, and for the enforce- 
ment of boating laws in Virginia. 
Boating programs are funded by 
fees derived from boat registration 
and titling. These funds are deposit- 
ed in a separate account within the 
Game Protection Fund. 

Currently there are just over 
250,000 registered boats in Virginia 
powered by some mechanical 
means. Canoes, rowboats, kayaks, 
sailboats, and other non-powered 
vessels are not required to be regis- 
tered unless powered by a motor. 

Transfers: $17,735,320 

The Department receives cash trans- 
fers from the state's General Fund 
directed to the Game Protection 

Fund. The cash represents collection 
of Watercraft Sales and Use Taxes 
and a portion of the sales tax on 
equipment for hunting, fishing, 
camping, wildlife watching, and 
other outdoor-related activities. 

The specific amount transferred 
to the Department is often modified 
by language in the General Assem- 
bly budget bill. To determine the 
amount the General Assembly will 
transfer to the Department, review 
the budget bill category, "Miscella- 
neous; Inter-fund Transfers." 

Other: $5,648,835 

Other income sources include Vir- 
ginia Wildlife magazine subscrip- 
tions; receipts from wildlife conser- 
vation license plates; timber sales 

Department Goals 

• Provide for optimum populations 
and diversity of wildlife species 
and their habitats 

• Enhance opportunities for the en- 
joyment of wildlife, inland fish, 
boating, and related outdoor recre- 

from Department-owned lands; interest from cash 
balances in accounts; sales of merchandise; dona- 
tions; and sales of the state migratory waterfowl 

Federal Aid: $16,671,109 

Federal funds come from a variety of designated 
funding sources, including: 

The Federal Aid in Wildlife Restoration Act (popu- 
larly known as the Pittman-Robertson Act) funds 
are derived from an 11 percent federal excise tax on 
sporting arms, ammunition, and archery equip- 
ment, and a 10 percent tax on handguns. 

The Federal Aid in Sport Fish Restoration Act 
(commonly referred to as the Dingell-Johnson / Wal- 
lop-Breaux Act) dollars are derived from a federal 
excise tax on manufacturers of fishing tackle, duties 
on boats, and a motorboat fuels tax. 

The State and Tribal Wildlife Grant Program funds 
are from appropriations provided through the fed- 
eral budget bill and are not dedicated tax funds. The 
program supports states' efforts that benefit 
wildlife and their habitats, including species that 
are not hunted or fished. The amounts may vary ac- 
cording to the appropriation in the federal budget. 

The Recreational Boating Safety Grant Program is 
administered through the U.S. Coast Guard. The 
sources of money for this program are varied and 
include a tax on fuel used in boating and the alloca- 
tion of revenues collected through amendments to 
the Dingell-Johnson / Wallop-Breaux Act. The funds 
may be used to provide facilities, equipment, and 
supplies for boating safety education and for law 
enforcement. Acquisition, construction, and repair 
of public boating access sites used primarily by 
recreational boaters, in addition to a variety of other 
programs ranging from boating patrol, search and 
rescue, boating safety inspections and marine casu- 
alty investigations, navigation aids, and supporting 
boat registration and titling programs are funded 
through this program. 

With the exception of the Recreation Boating Safe- 
ty Grant Program, federal funds are primarily desig- 
nated for wildlife and fisheries management and 
cannot be used for law enforcement efforts. 

Improve the understanding and 
appreciation of the importance of 
wildlife, inland fish, and their habi- 

• Promote safe and ethical conduct in 
the enjoyment of boating, hunting, 
fishing, wildlife viewing, and relat- 
ed outdoor recreation 

• Improve agency funding and other 
resources and effectively manage 
all resources and operations 


Total Expenditures: 

Since funding sources support a range 
of programs, the Department uses a 
mission-focused budget divided into 
four functional areas: Recreation, Edu- 
cation, Environmental Diversity, and 
Administration. Administration costs 
are shown here for information pur- 
poses. Such costs are allocated across 
the three core areas of our mission. 

Environmental Diversity 



Info System 

Wildlife & Boating-related Education 




Wildlife & Boating-related Recreation 

Facilities Capital 






Watchable Wildlife 






Agency Management 


Training $15,847 


Functional Areas 

•The Environmental Diversity 
functional area is a set of programs 
designed to support the mission 
of the agency: "To manage Vir- 
ginia's wildlife and inland fish to 
maintain optimum populations 
of all species to serve the needs of 
the Commonwealth." This is 
comprised of habitat and popu- 
lation management work done 
for game species such as deer, 
turkey and quail, and non-game 
species which includes birds and 
reptiles and endangered species. 

• The Education functional area is 
a set of programs to support the 
mission of the agency: "To pro- 
mote safety for persons and 
property in connection with 
boating, hunting and fishing." 
This includes boating education, 
outdoor education, and public 
outreach such as Virginia Wildlife 
magazine. Project WILD, and the 
Outdoor Report. 

• The Recreatio]i functional area is 
a set of programs to support the 
mission of the agency: "To pro- 
vide opportunity for all to enjoy 
wildlife, iriland fish, boating and 
related outdoor recreation." Ef- 
forts supported by this category 
include fish hatcheries, hunting, 
fishing, and wildlife watching 

• The Administration functional 
area is a set of programs to sup- 





port the goal of the agency: "To 
improve agency funding and 
other resources and the manage- 
ment and effectiveness of all re- 
sources and operations." This 
area covers Department-wide 
administrative activities that en- 
sure compliance with procure- 
ment, accounting, technology 
and other policies, and also in- 
cludes acquisition and mainte- 
nance of facilities. 

The administrative structure 
of the agency is divided into ad- 
ministration, enforcement, boat- 
ing safety, wildlife, fish, wildlife 
diversity, and information and 
education. These administrative 
units are represented by a cost 
code structure within the finan- 
cial systems of the agency. Within 
any functional area, all of the dis- 
ciplines will apply their specific 
knowledge, skills, and abilities at 
an appropriate level to obtain the 
goals and objectives of the pro- 

Department Assets 

• More than 200,000 acres of 
land in 38 wildlife manage- 
ment areas 

• 37 public fishing lakes 

• 215 public boat facilities 

• Handicapped-accessible fish- 
ing piers 

• 8 fish culture stations 

• Statewide birding and. 
wilcilife trail 

2008-2009 Outdoor 
Calendar of Events 

For current information and registration 
on workshops go to the "Upcoming 
Events" page on the Department's Web 
site at or call 804- 

December 6: Ediicatkvial Rabbit Hunt- 
ing Workshop, Kennedy's Orchard, 
Bedford County. 

December 6: Women's Pheasant Hunt- 
ing Workshop, Remington. For more 
information contact Sharon Townley 
at 540-439-2683 or email shady- 
gro vekennel@aol .com . 

January 3, 2009: Youth Waterfowl 
Hunting Workshop, Chance, Va. 

January 3, 2009: Firearms season 
closes for bear, deer and turkey. Late 
archery and late muzzleloading deer 
seasons close. 

January 16-18, 2009: The Richmond 
Fisliing Expo, Richmond Raceway 
Complex. For more information, see 
http: / / / 

January 31: Quail and squirrel sea- 
sons close. D 

by Beth Hester 

Winter World: The Ingenuity of Animal 


Bernd Heinrich 

2003 Ecco/ Harper Collins 

ISBN: 0-06-095737-9 

Softcover with illustrations 


"It seems astoundiiig to us that sonie 
frogs can survive months being frozen, or 
that a bird as small as a kinglet can stay 


warm and survive even one zointer night, 
much less a whole northern winter " 

- Bernd Heinrich 

Basic survival techniques are gener- 
ally a part of every outdoor person's 
repertoire. Most hunters, anglers, 
skiers and hikers know how to create 
mdimentary shelter, build a fire, and 
dress properly for cold, harsh condi- 
tions. We manage to get by, bundled 
up in wool, waxed-cotton or high- 
tech synthetics with nary a thought 
for how the grouse, the turtle, the 
vole, or the kinglets who are sharing 
the forest with us are getting along. 
However, when our breath comes 
out in icy, white puffs, and our fly line 
won't shoot through the guides, it's 
hard not to speculate about how 
whole hosts of other woodland crea- 
tures have evolved their own highly 
specialized 'winterizing' techniques. 

Where do the animals go? What 
do they eat? Do they overwinter, or 
hibernate? Author and biologist 
Bernd Heinrich takes readers on an 
extended, jaw dropping tour of the 
inner world of animals as they cope 
with winter. 

Some creatures survive by creat- 
ing their own biological antifreeze; 
Ruffed grouse tunnel into snow to 
wait out a storm; the vole (Mother 
Nature's hors d'oeuvre) becomes the 
winter dietary staple of weasels, 
foxes, bobcats and other predators; 
wasps insulate their homes with lay- 
ers of homemade papier-mache; 
thousands of congregating snow 
fleas tint the snow almost black; and a 
grizzly can move up to a ton of earth 
to carve out a hillside den. 

And speaking of bears, Heinrich 
also provides some surprising infor- 
mation about bear metabolism and 
their winter behavior... a surprise I 
won't spoil for you here. 

If Heinrich's book consisted only 
of individual and group portraits of 
animal survival, that would be 
enough. The real heart of the book 
rests in the connections the flora and 

fauna make with one another from 
late autumn to early spring. He 
shows us the interdependent and 
kaleidoscopic winter world in all its 
miraculous complexity; his prose 
style, a perfectly balanced blend of 
rock-hard science and lyricism. D 

A Second Chance for 

Virginia's Birdwatchers: 

Tlie 2009 Great Backyard 

Bird Count 

If you'll miss this month's 2008 
Christmas Bird Count, don't worry. . . 
the 2009 Great Backyard Bird Count 
(GBBC) is just around the comer. The 
annual, four-day event is organized 
by the Cornell Lab of Ornithology 
and the National Audubon Society, 
with sponsorship from Wild Birds 
Unlimited. The 2009 count will take 
place over President's Day weekend, 
February 13-16. 

Why bother to count birds? Ac- 
cording to the Audubon society, the 
reasons are legion: 

"Scientists and bird watchers Ccin 
learn a lot by knowing where the 
birds are. Bird populations are dy- 
namic; they are constantly in flux. No 
single scientist or team of scientists 
could hope to document the complex 
distribution and movements of so 
many species in such a short time. 
Scientists use the counts, along with 
observations from citizen-science 
projects such as the Christmas Bird 
Count, Feeder Watch, and ebird, to 
give us an immense picture of our 
winter birds. Each year that these 
data are collected makes them more 
meaningful and allows scientists to 
investigate far-reaching questions." 

Participants in last year's GBBC 
submitted more than 85,000 check- 
lists, surpassing the 2007 all-time 
record by several thousand. Partici- 
pants also identified a record 634 
species and sent in thousands of stun- 
ning bird images from around the 


continent. In Virginia, a total of 179 
species were reported, including the 
Virginia rail, bald eagle, osprey, mer- 
lin, harlequin duck, and homed lark. 
Virginia also had the distinction of 
ranking sixth among the top 10 states 
submitting the most bird count 

Don't miss this opportunity to 
become a citizen-scientist, helping to 
track the birds of the Common- 
wealth. To find out how you can par- 
ticipate, view bird photos sent in by 
participants, and explore detailed 
state-by-state results of the annual 
counts, visit: / gbbc 
ww^ / gbbc 

Get involved; it's a simple, grati- 
fying way to assist scientists in col- 
lecting valuable bird data. It's also a 
great occasion to celebrate Virginia's 
wildlife during the post-hoUday sea- 
son. D 

Buy Your Lifetime License 
' 1-866-721-6911 

HeportWildiile Violations 

United States Postal Service 

Statement of Ownership, Management, and Circulation 

Publication Title: Virginia Wildlife 

Publication Number: 0042-6792 

Filing Date: 09-^8-08 

Issue Frequency: Monthly 

Number of Issues Published Annually: 1 2 

Annual Subscription Price: $12.95 

Complete Mailing Address: 401 West Broad Street, Richmond, VA 23230 

Contact Person: Sally Mills, Editor, Telephone 804-367-0486 

Full Names of Complete Mailing Addresses of Publisher, Editor, and Managing Editor: Sally Mills: Virginia Wildlife, 

4010West Broad Street, Richmond, VA 23230. 

Owner: Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries, 4010 West Broad Street, Richmond, VA 23230 

Known Bondholders, Mortgagees, and Other Security Holders Owning or FFolding I percent or More of Total 

Amount of Bonds, Mortgages or Other SecuritJes: None 

Tax Status: Has Not Changed During Preceding 1 2 Months 

Publication 77t/e; Virginia Wildlife 

Issue Data for Circulation Data Below: September 2008 

Extent and Nature Of Circulation Avg. No. Copies Each Issue No. Copies of Single Issue 

During Preceding 1 2 Months Published Nearest to Filing Date 
Total Number of Copies 40,4 1 7 

Mailed Outside-County F^id Subscriptions 34,738 

Stated on PS Form 3541 

Mailed In-Counly F^id Subscriptions Stated on PS Form 3541 None 
Sales Through Dealers and Carriers, Street Vendors, 
Counter Sales, and Other Non-USPS F^id Distribution 


Raid Distribution by Other Classes Through USPS 68 

Total f^id Distribution 34,831 

Free or Nominal Rate Outside-County Included on None 

PS Form 3541 

Free or Nominal Rate In-County Included on None 

PS Form 3541 

Free or Nominal Rate Copies Mailed at None 

Other Classes Through USPS 

Free or Nominal Rate Distribution Outside the Mail 1, 085 

Total Distribution 35,916 

Copies Not Distributed 4,501 

Total 40,417 

Percent F^id and/or Requested Circulation 97% 









It^ once again time to purchase a new Virginia Wildlife calendar For 
more than 20 years the Department of Game and Inland Fisheries has 
been publishing one of the most visually stunning and informative 
wildlife calendars in the country. 

The 2009 edition of the Virginia Wildlife calendar highlights many of 
the most sought after game and fish species in the state, Virginia hunters, 
anglers, and wildlife enthusiasts will appreciate the rich colors and compo- 
sition of the 1 2 monthly photo spreads 

The calendar is full of useful tidbits for the outdoors lover — including 
wildlife behavior preferred fishing and hunting times, hunting seasons, 
state fish records, and much morel Life history information is provided for 
each species featured. 

Virginia WIdlife calendars make great holiday gifts and are still being 
offered at the bargain price of only S 1 each 

Quantities are limited, so order yours nowl Make your check payable 
to Treasurer of Virginia" and send to. Virginia Wildlife Calendar PO. Box 
I 1 1 04, Richmond, Vrginia 23230-1 1 04, To pay by VISA or MasterCard, 
you can order the calendar online at. www HuntFishVA com on our se 
cure site. Please allow 4 to 6 weeks for delivery 




Find Game is an interactive Web-based 
map viewer designed by the Virginia 
Department of Game and Inland Fish- 
eries to provide better and more cur- 
rent information about hunting land 
location and access in Virginia. Find 
Game allows users to map hunting 
areas by location and/or by game 
species, along with hunting quality by 
species, land manager contact infor- 
mation, site description, facilities avail- 
able, access information and associat- 
ed Web links. To learn more about 
Find Game, visit www.HuntFishVA.coin/ 








, 1 -%.|^f^ 




"Wow, you're good- 
you sure had me fooled." 

Congratulations to Ben Spencer (right), 
who took this fine gobbler during a youth 
turkey day hunt in 2007. The bird weighed 
20 pounds and had a 10-inch beard. Ben 
was seven years old at the time and killed 
this turkey on his grandparents' farm in 
Lunenburg County. Ben is the son of Col and 
Meri Page Spencer ofKenbridge, Virginia. 

From the Editor: 

Thanks to the many employees of the 
Department who volunteered tlieir time 
and expertise to review articles during 
2008. Your timely assistance helped to 
keep tlie magazine on track each month 
and is sincerely appreciated! 

C R O S 5 W O 

5. Seek game with arrows 

7. Fledgling bird 

8. Code for type of firearm 

9. "Devil's Paintbrush" 

12. Code for type of bullet 

13. Spotlight on deer 
1 6. Suck up liquid 

1 8. Hatch, reproduce 

1 9. Scrap, crumb 

20. Oyster, clam, mussel 

23. Great Swamp 

27: Moment time 

28. Wood warbler group 

29. Orange and yellow 
; butterfly 

30. Lower half of turtle 
shell, (pi.) 

32. Snowy shore bird 

35. Clapper (bird) 

36. Yellowish brown to 
drab brown bats 

37. Insect rough surfaces 
used in stridulation 


1 . Root of plant used for 
venom treatment 

2. Bushy thistle-like flower 

3. Deer resting place 

4. Small shad-like fish 

5. Kill a deer 

6. Boat tol let 

10. Upward movement of 

1 1 . Aside; beside 
14. Marine mammal 
1 5. Glossy bird 

1 7. Float in liquid 

21 . Tree mammals 

22. Area between hunter 
and animal 

24. Fog, very fine rain (pi) 

25. Soft laugh, cluck 

26. Gossamer-wing family 
28. Stretch of noisy, roaring 

river water 
31 . Urban rodent 

33. Sportfish for bowfishing 

34. inlet 

An excellent resource for solving this puzzle is the National Audubon Society Field Guide to the Mid-Atlantic States. 

(Answers in January, 2009 issue of the magazine) 
Marika Byrd is a freelance writer and photographer and a member of the Virginia Outdoor Writers Association. 



by Lynda Richardson 

Presents, Presents, Presents for the Holidays 

/wish I could be more like my mom. 
Right after the holidays she is al- 
ready buying gifts for the following 
year. In March, I might hear, "Oh boy, 
wait until Christmas! You are going to 
KILL me when you see what 1 got 
you!!!" When May arrives it might 
be, "Do you have a salad spinner? 
Don't buy one because 1 got you 
one for Christmas... or should 1 
give it to you for your birthday?" 
All year long she gleefully reports 
on various gift purchases that she 
makes and stashes away. 

One of tlie best gifts my mom 
gives us is something she makes by 
hand. This past July, in honor of my 
youngest sister's 40th birthday, 
mom knitted 40 mice in various col- 
ors and stuffed each one with cat- 
nip. I'm not really sure if this was a 
gift for my sister or her cats but it 
was quite entertaining to see them 
lick, smack around, and roll on 
those mice. 

Mom has made felted pink 
flamingo purses with pink feathers, 
rainbow-colored hedgehogs, gor- 
geous quilts, throws and, among 
my favorites, pillowcases. Flamin- 
gos seem to be a favorite theme, 
and I got one of those. My husband 
got a New England Patriots pillow- 
case as well as several fish print 
ones. The more colorful, or as she 
says, "loud," the better! My mom is 
too fimny. 

So what are you going to come 
up with as a gift idea for your pho- 
tography-loving family member or 
friend? How about making a gift? 

If you are handy with a sewing 
machine or needle and thread, why 
don't you try making a pillowcase 
or two with appropriately-themed 
fabric? Pillowcases are actually 
super easy and inexpensive to 
make, and you can find loads of direc- 
tions for making them on-line and at 
your favorite fabric store. Here's a link 
to tiirections that 1 found on-line: 
http: / / / gi / dynam- 
ic /offsite.htm?site=http:/ /www.mor- 

Here are some more examples of 
what you could do; 

1. Picture frames! Buy or put to- 
gether plain wooden frames and deco- 
rate them! I have cut out pictures and 
text from various magazines and then 
decoupaged them onto plain ash 
frames. Clear shellac will protect your 

"Decorated frames and note cards make great gifts 
that you can put together yourself!" 
®Lynda Richardson 

ihm^ a^itikA l^nlHli 

Congratulations to Joseph R. Ellis of Sterling 
for his wonderful photograph of a Cooper's 
hawk feeding on an unlucky songbird. Joseph 
reports that he spotted the raptor hanging 
around his bird feeders. This apparently paid 
off for the clever bird of prey. Joseph cap- 
tured this image with a Nikon D50 digital SLR 
camera with a 70-300mm lens at the focal 
length of 300mm at 1/ 60th, f 5.6, ISO 200. 

hard work and give tlie frame a shiny, 
finished-off look. You could also use 
acrylic paints to paint the frames 
and /or cover them with shells, faux 
pearls, glass beads, or fabric. Be cre- 

2. Note cards! Purchase blank 
5X7" photographic note cards with 
envelopes that you can give your 
photographer to fill with their own 
4X6" images, or you can do it for 
them. Two great places to get these 
cards are: Cape Cads (for blank 
(800) 662-1008; or for cards with 
messages, try Photographer's Edge,, 

3. Photo albums or journals! Buy 

or make a plain photo album or 
journal and decorate it witli a partic- 
ular theme your recipient would 
love! If your photographer traveled 
to Africa, maybe they would like an 
album decorated with African- 
themed beads, zebra striped fabric, 
or, of course, their own images. 
Study scrapbooking and collage- 
making magazines and books for 
additional ideas. 

Give a gift that will be treasured for 
a lifetime! My mom would be 
proud of you! Happy Holidays! D 

You are invited to submit one to five 
of your best photographs to "Image 
of the Month," Virginia Wildlife 
Magazine, PO. Box 11104, 4010 
West Broad Street, Richmond, VA 
23230-1104. Send original slides, 
super Iiigh-quality prints, or high- 
res 360 dpi jpeg files on disk and in- 
clude a self-addressed, stamped en- 
velope or other shipping method 
for return. Also, please include any per- 
tinent information regarding how and 
where you captured the image and 
what camera and settings you used, 
along with your phone number. We 
look forward to seeing and sharing 
your work with the readers of Virginia 



Just /'il(e. coit/l aryt/li /TO <e/5<B, ~5a>/>7e:ti/y?&S dudi:^ hut)te.>-3 Jna/G t/loSe. da/S ujheJi 
t/l'/TQS do/i t iAjGf-i;^ out the. too/ t/iey uje.t& p/a/in&d. 3acJ( tohejn X au'id&d -Pot 
phGa.sor>t3 //? A/eAra5^a <uje ujou/d -5a/, "They coer-e. Zjq<j/i a/xi toe coere zaaQi/r 

coheJi the oj'i/y tGoStelS -fGUrid a coO/ t<o> ^SdOpe a -field c<Jitnc>ut hot/^. LaSt J)ede/y7/t>et 
\^/l oJOS one. crft/loSe da/3. 

My -father- a/id X redelved a/0 lrt/!tatio/i to a dua^ d/u^ on the Pa/yiun^ey ^iVer-. X had 
heard oAout the p fade -for- years, a/>out /i/yjitS of cn-eenheads a/xJ cje&Se, out had neVet 
QoT^en the op/PottuniTSy to hunt there. €xpedtcsti onS coet-e h>Qh OS log. y?u//ed doton the 
Zona dfiVecoay /eadlna to the far/yjhoUSe a/ona the fiVer. fro/y^ the ujoods to the left a 
dajido d&Br- ooUnd&d adf~oSS the toad and Sl^yy/^ed /yjo/yjeJitarJy in the oeOT) field on the 
other side-. X Shou/d ho/e taken it OS So/yje Sort ofsian, Aut instead XJuSt thoUaht, 
" Coo/! XnSide the S/y?a// hoUSe that actS as the /odae, aroUpS of hunterS donned 
coaderS, dra/i^ doffee, a/id Scocpped StofieS . So/yje a/>oUzhuntinQ. So/yje not. Xt cuOS 

sti// a/7 h<=>ur Aefore daujn. 

A feuj /yjinuteS later it coOS ti/yie to draco for A/indS. My father ujent frSt a/id y?u//ed 
the ^\ ta<Q fro/yj the y?ot, cohidh /^ea/it uje had first dhoide of o/inds for the /yjornino s 
hunt. U^e dhoSe a a/ind in the A>adk of a dree/( ujhere the d/u/^ /yje/yiAer coho in/ited US 

had shot a /i/y?it of^irds the fast ti^e he had /^>een doton. J^oto X coas rea//y fired u/?. 
"This /yjornino coaS Sure to aet /yie out of the s/u/ynp X had Aeen in for a feco hunts . 

At shootina ti/yie the Airds toere eVeryiohere- A/aciJ( dudJ:!S, /yja/ lards, tea/, and coood 
dudj(;'S. lA^e y^aSSed on SeVeraJ cy-oUy>S ot coood dudJ^S and another of tea/, e><y>edtina the 
dJrd/ina /^a//ards to droy> into the Spread at any /yiinute. At So/^e point, one coou/dthin/( 
X ujou/d /earn /yjy /eSSon. One S AaQ tends to aet /iahfter cohen areed Aedo/yjeS part of 
this oa/y7e. X /^noco thiS, and X ha/e ^en aui/ty on /y?any oddaSionS of/eT^ina the frSt 
fe/Aj Airds /and in order to try to pu// the Aiaoer aroup in behind, on/y to ha/e the pair ta/(e 
off UnSdXzthed and the /aroer cy-oup head for areener pastures oefore do/yiina into ranoe. 

'The Aiq dud/:^S /(ept dird/ina and dird/ino Aut none coou/d do/^/yjit to our Spread. fTna/- 
/y, four ^acJc dud/(S pee/ed of f and /anded a feco hundred yards docon the dree^. Xhe rest 
fo//oioed. Over the ne>ft SeVera/ h<=>UrS o/er 200 Airds /anded Aehind us in the dree^. Xt 
coas d/ear they had Aeen Aad-k there for a feco days. Xhexy Set up coith coinaS /odJ^ed fro/y? 
hundreds of yards out. Xda//ed at the/yi for the first hour or So and then] ust put the 
da// docon and coatdhed as they dropped, (M~oup after 
aroup, into the oOSiS Aehind US. C/uA ru/eS don t 
aj/oco any huntina outside of the A/inds, So there coaS 
nothina to do Aut cocs!:dh. X /yiySeJf 
LoaS /y7o/y?entari /y ind/ined to padd/e the 
Aoat up the dree/( coith a handfu/ of 
dedoyS, -f/// three ouid^ /i/yjits, and 
head for Area^fast. 

Xn the end coe da/yfe ho/y/e coithout pu//ina the 
tri^er. xt coas sti// cy-eat to See So /yiany AirdS. And 
thouah it coou/d ha/e Aeen eVen Aetter to aet in a /itt/e 
Shootina, that SjuSt the coay it aoeS So/yjeti /yieS . 
Most ti/y?eS, antuaZ/y. 


Outdoor Catalog 


Limited Edition 
Virginia Wildlife 
Collector's Knife 

Our 2008 Col lector's knife has once again been customized by Buck Knives. 
The knife features a red-tailed hawk engraving, augmented by a natural 
woodgrain handle and gold lettering. A distinctive, solid cherry box features 
birds of prey. 

Item J? VW-408 $90.00 each (plus $7.25 S&H) 

2007 Virginia Wildlife 
Collector's Knife 

Customized by Buck Knives, this classic model 1 10 folding knife is 8 1/2" 
long when fully opened and has a distinctive, natural woodgrain handle with 
gold lettering. Each knife is individually serial numbered and has a mirror pol- 
ished blade engraved with a fox. A solid cherry box engraved with foxes is in- 

$90.00 each (plus $7.25 S&H) 



and Turtles 

From mountains to the coast, our plush collectibles will remind you of your 
favorite Virginia habitat. (Sizes range from 5" to 9" long) 


White-tailed Fawn 

$9.95 each 
$9.95 each 

Hooks & Horns 

Video Game 

Match wits against the king of upland game 
birds, the spring gobbler, and test your hunt- 
ing skills with the magnificent white-tailed 


$14.95 each 

To Orcl(^i visit the Department's Web site at: or call (804) 367-2569. 

Please allow 3 to 4 weeks for delivery. 

Hunting License - 

The new apprentice hunting license serves as a 
first-timeVirginia resident or nonresident hunt- 
ing license and is good for 2 years. 

The license holder must be accompanied and 
directly supervised by a mentor over 18 who 
has on his or her person a validVirginia hunting 

The apprentice license does not qualify the 
holder to purchase a regular hunting license, 
nor exempt the holder from compliance with 
Department regulations. A hunter education 
course must be successfully completed to ob- 
tain a regular hunting license. 

A bear, deer, turkey license and all applicable 
stamps or permits are required in addition to 
the apprentice license. 

t Previous Virginia resident and nonresident 
hunting license holders may not use an appren- 
I tice license. 
To learn more about the Virginia Apprentice 
Hunting License, call (866) 721-69! I or log on 


Index to Virginia Wildlife 

2008, Volume 69, Numbers 1-12 


Brant, Geese, and Swans, Knuth Feb., p. 12 

Puddle Ducks, Knuth Nov., p. 26 

Ruffed Grouse, Knuth Apr., p. 24 

Small Winter Bird Friends, Knuth Jan., p. 24 

Those "Other" Sunfish, Knuth July, p. 9 

Virginia's Amazing FHawks, Knuth Sept., p. 26 

Virginia's Diving Ducks, Knuth Dec, p. 20 

Virginia's Flycatchers, Knuth May, p. 14 

Virginia's Little Flycatchers, Knuth June, p. 24 

Virginia's Plovers, Knuth Oct., p. 26 


Add a Fish-Depth Finder to Your Plastic Boat?, 

Crosby Apr., p. 32 

Boating in Cold Water, Crosby Jan., p. 34 

Drop Your Prop and Get a Jet!, Crosby May, p. 33 

Meet SPOT: A Satellite Messenger, Crosby Aug., p. 34 

New Law Addresses Boating Safety, Cues5 Oct., p. 34 

Power Your Boat With The Sun, Crosby Sept., p. 33 

Safety on the Water, Sledd July, p. 33 

What's Your Boat Trailer Worth?, Crosby June, p. 33 

Winter Float Planning!, Crosby Feb., p. 32 


2007 Angler Hall of Fame June, p. 28 

2007 Angler of the Year June, p. 30 

Go West Young Man-Go Far West, Ingram Jan., p. 1 9 

Lake Conner's Lunker Largemouth, McClade Oct., p. 1 8 

Lake Prince's Trifecta, McClade Nov., p. 12 

Match the Hatch, Murray Aug., p. 1 6 

Nymph Fishing for Smallmouth Bass, Murray July, p. 21 

Opening Day is For Kids, Clarkson Apr., p. 4 

Project Healing Waters, Montgomery May, p. 4 

Riverkeeper' Rodeo Snags More Than Fish 

Montgomery Sept., p. 24 

Small Lake, Big Surprises, McClade Sept., p. 20 

Spotsy's New Gem, McClade June, p. 4 

The Art of Deception, Clarkson Jan., p. 4 

Tidewater's Non-tidal Gold Mines, McClade July, p. 4 

Where The Sky is Always Blue, Clarkson Aug., p. 4 


A Duck Hunter's Journal, Clarkson Nov./Dec, p. 33 

A New Hunting Heritage, Clarkson July, p. 26 

Accessing the Hunt, Perrotte Dec, p. 9 

Above The Law?, Shepherd Jan., p. 8 

Avoiding Bowhunting Blunders and Bloopers, 

Ingram Oct., p. 22 

Cobble Hill Farm, Kocka Sept., p. 14 

Dove Hunts Celebrate Food, Family and Friends, 

Perrotte Aug., p. 20 

GRITS, Jones Aug., p. 1 2 

Hope's Harvest, Johnson Oct., p. 14 

Minimalist Hunting 101, Ingram Apr., p. 14 

Passing It On, Hart Nov., p. 8 

Radford Revisited, Perrotte Sept., p. 9 

Real Hunters Don't Bait or Feed, Ingram Aug., p. 8 

The Hunt is More Than The Harvest, Shank Nov., p. 4 

The Never-Ending Season, Badger Dec, p. 4 

Trapping 1 01 , Clarkson June, p. 9 


A Better Place Because of Blake, Clarkson Dec, p. 1 6 

ACentral Virginia Museum Rocks, Grey Aug., p. 25 

A Green School Blooms with Life, Brown Sept., p. 1 6 

A Keelboaton the Rivanna River?, Crosby July, p. 14 

A Little Night Music, Shepherd July, p. 1 7 

Annual Photography Contest Showcase, Richardson .... March 

Camping With Kids, McClade Feb., p. 24 

Community Partnerships, Brown Dec, p. 18 

Featherweight Fliers, Majarov Oct., p. 9 

Financial Summary, Fiscal Year 2008 Dec, p. 25 

Floating the Rapp, Ingram Sept., p. 4 

Franklin's Blackwater Landing, McClade Apr., p. 9 

Kids Against Trash, Brown Jan., p. 12 

Magic Happens at Wolftrap, Brown May, p. 26 

Mustang Meadows, Brown Feb., p. 20 

Outdoor Beach Women, Streit Feb., p. 1 8 

Retriever College, Perrotte Jun., p. 20 

Seeing is Believing, Brown Nov., p. 22 

Southside Virginia, Mckinley |an., p. 16 

Using the Arts to Inspire Stewardship, S/oivn Oct., p. 16 

Virginia's Grand Caverns, Byrd June, p. 1 5 

Weaving an Environmental Tapestry, Brown Apr., p. 20 


Back Up Those Valuable Digital Photographs, 

Richardson July, p. 34 

Be a Wildlife Detective, Richardson Jan., p. 32 

Celebrate the Season With Holiday Light Photography, 

Richardson Nov., p. 34 

Create Your Own Favorite Shooting Location, 

Richardson June, p. 34 

Get Involved With the North American Nature 

Photography Association, Richardson Sept., p. 34 

Photograph Your Favorite Canine!, R/c/7a/c/son Oct., p. 33 

Presents, Presents, Presents for the Holidays, 

Richardson Dec, p. 32 

Spare Your Shoulders and Get a Beach Roily! 

Richardson Aug., p. 33 

Tips for Creating Better Photographs-Part 1 , 

Richardson Apr., p. 33 

Tips for Creating Better Photographs-Part 2, 

Richardson May, p. 34 

What is Acceptable Digital Manipulation? 

Richardson Feb., p. 34 


"Bring Back Bob," Clarkscjn Oct., p. 4 

Clearing the Way to Rebuild Fisheries, Weaver May, p. 20 

Meadowood Doesn't Fence You In, Byrd Feb., p. 8 

Minnows and Mussels, Ingram Feb., p. 4 

Primum Non Nocere, Lemmert Dec, p. 12 

Protecting Our Wetlands, Mckinley Apr., p. 18 

Retaining a Geography of Hope, Funk Nov., p. 16 

ThinkingGlobally and Acting Locally, C/ar/cson May, p. 24 

Trout in the Classroom, Beasley June, p. 12 

Trucks forTrout, Beasley Apr., p. 6 

Virginia's Mystery Serpent, Binder May, p. 9 


April is for WildTurkey Gobblers, Cone Apr., p. 34 

Oysters at Risk, Cone Feb., p. 33 

Tasty Trout Tips for Better Cooking Results, Cone Jan., p. 33 



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